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Gum Disease: Causes, Symptoms, and Risks and Treatments

Young beautiful woman with freckles light makeup in sweater on white wall with magnifier shows white teeth perfect smile

Gum disease is common; however, it’s a serious dental condition affecting the health of your gums and teeth. This article will educate you about the various aspects of gum disease, including its causes, symptoms, potential risks, and available treatment options and prevention.

Understanding these factors helps you take proactive steps to prevent gum disease from progressing and maintain optimal oral health. We’ll also outline your options to treat gum disease.

What is Gum Disease?

Gum disease affects the teeth’ gum tissue, starting with gums’ inflammation. This bacterial infection can progress to a more severe stage if left untreated. This condition can lead to gums pulling away from the teeth, the breakdown of the bone and connective tissue supporting the teeth, and tooth loss. 

Gum, or periodontal disease, is a significant health concern as it not only impacts oral health but can also contribute to systemic issues such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Early detection and treatment prevent these serious complications.

Stages of Gum Disease

Stages of Gum Disease

Gum disease, a type of dental disease, primarily manifests in two main stages: Gingivitis and Periodontitis. Gingivitis is the initial, milder stage characterized by inflammation and bleeding of the gums. At the same time, periodontitis is a more severe stage leading to damage to the tissues and bones supporting the teeth. Let’s take a closer look at the stages of gum disease and its symptoms.


The first stage of gum disease is gingivitis, caused by plaque buildup. 

Plaque is a sticky bacteria that continuously forms on the teeth, leading to irritation and inflammation of the gums. Its buildup is caused by poor oral hygiene. 

The symptoms of gingivitis may not be noticeable at first, but as the disease progresses, they become more apparent. Some common symptoms of gingivitis include:

  • Red, swollen or tender gums
  • Bleeding while brushing or flossing
  • Bad breath
  • Receding gum line


Periodontitis is the advanced stage of gingivitis. It occurs when the infection from gingivitis spreads to the tissues and bones that support the teeth. The bacteria present in plaque release toxins, which cause inflammation that destroys gums and bone structures. Some common symptoms of periodontal disease include:

  • Persistent bad breath
  • Swollen, tender or receding gums
  • Deep pockets between teeth and gums
  • Loose or shifting teeth

Causes of Gum Disease

Dental plaque in human mouth — Stock Photo, Image

The plaque buildup is the primary cause of gum disease. This results from poor oral hygiene practices. Plaque is a sticky bacteria that continuously forms on your teeth. If it is not properly removed through brushing and flossing, plaque hardens into tartar, leading to gum inflammation and infection over time.

Other contributing factors:

  • Smoking: It can weaken the immune system, making it harder to fight a gum infection.
  • Genetics: A family history of dental disease can increase the likelihood of developing gum issues.
  • Certain Medications: Some medications reduce saliva flow, which helps protect the gums and teeth.

Gum Disease Risk Factors

As one age, the likelihood of gum disease rises due to the cumulative effects of plaque buildup over the years and a potentially weakened immune response. Diabetes, particularly when poorly controlled, weakens the body’s ability to fight infection, including in the gums. This leads to more severe forms of gum disease. Pregnancy, with its hormonal changes, can make gums more susceptible to inflammation and infections, a condition known as pregnancy gingivitis.

Risk Factor Connection to gum disease
Age Increased plaque buildup and weakened immunity
Diabetes Compromised immune system, harder to fight infection
Pregnancy Hormonal changes leading to inflammation

Symptoms of Gum Disease

Periodontal & GUM Disease – Masaki Healthcare
  • Red Gums: Redness in the gums is one of the earliest signs of gum disease. It indicates that the gums are inflamed and reacting to the presence of bacterial plaque.
  • Swollen Gums: Swelling in the gums can signal an infection. This swelling is typically accompanied by tenderness and discomfort.
  • Bleeding Gums: Bleeding, especially during brushing or flossing, is a common symptom of gum disease. It is a sign of inflammation and irritation caused by harmful bacteria.

Complications of Untreated Gum Disease

Neglecting gum disease not only affects the oral cavity but also other parts of the body. Some of the potential consequences include:

  • Tooth Loss: Persistent inflammation and infection can destroy the structures that support the teeth, leading to loosening and eventual loss of teeth.
  • Jawbone Damage: As the disease progresses, it can cause significant deterioration of the jawbone, leading to weakened bone structure and potential changes in facial appearance.
  • Heart Disease: Gum disease causes inflammation that contributes to arterial plaque buildup, potentially leading to coronary artery disease or heart attacks.
  • Diabetes Complications: Severe gum disease can complicate the management of blood sugar levels, making it more challenging to control diabetes. Conversely, high blood sugar can also exacerbate gum disease, creating a vicious cycle.
  • Abscess Formation: Pockets of pus can develop in the gums or jawbone, causing pain, swelling, and further infection.
  • Receding Gums: As the gum pulls away from the teeth, it exposes the tooth and its root, increasing the risk of decay and sensitivity.

Diagnosing Gum Disease

Diagnosing gum disease involves a comprehensive dental exam conducted by a dentist. During the exam, the dentist will carefully probe the gums using an instrument to measure the depth of the gum pockets, indicating gum disease’s presence. Healthy pockets usually measure between 1 to 3 millimetres, but deeper pockets can signal gum problems.

Additionally, the dentist may take X-rays to assess bone loss around the teeth, which is another critical indicator of gum disease. Through these methods, a dentist can effectively detect and evaluate the severity of gum disease to recommend an appropriate treatment plan.

Treatment Options for Gum Disease

There are options available for treating gum disease, depending on the severity and stage of the disease. This includes:

Scaling and Root Planing

Dental Scaling

Scaling and root planing, commonly known as deep cleaning, is a non-surgical procedure often recommended in the early stages of gum disease. This treatment removes plaque and tartar from above and below the gum line. 

The procedure smooths out the tooth root surfaces, helping the gums reattach to the teeth. Patients may experience discomfort during and after the procedure, but it is highly effective in controlling gum disease.


Antibiotics are used to tackle infections that can contribute to gum disease. These can be administered in various forms, such as mouth rinses, gels, or oral tablets. 

Antibiotics help reduce bacteria and inflammation, providing relief and promoting healing of the gums. They are typically used with other treatments like scaling and root planing to ensure comprehensive care.


In more advanced cases of gum disease, where there has been bone loss or gum recession, gum surgery may be necessary. Surgical options include flap surgery to remove tartar deposits in deep pockets and reduce the periodontal pockets, as well as bone grafting for rebuilding lost bone or gum tissue. These surgeries aim to restore supportive structures and prevent further damage, giving patients the best chance for a healthy recovery.

Preventing Gum Disease

Maintaining good oral hygiene prevents gum disease, a common yet preventable condition.

  • Brush at least twice a day with toothpaste with fluoride to remove food particles and plaque. When left unmanaged, it can lead to gum inflammation and infection.
  • Flossing is equally important to remove plaque from between the teeth and along the gum line, areas that a toothbrush can’t reach.
  • Regular dental checkups and professional cleanings are indispensable in maintaining oral health.
  • Professional cleaning services can remove hardened plaque that’s beyond reach with regular brushing and flossing, ensuring your gums stay healthy and disease-free.

When to See a Dentist

It’s crucial to consult a dentist if you experience any symptoms of gum disease. Persistent bleeding gums, chronic bad breath, or loose teeth are all signs that should not be ignored. These symptoms can indicate underlying issues that need professional attention to prevent further complications. 

Additionally, even if you’re not experiencing any symptoms, regular dental checkups are vital for maintaining overall oral health and catching potential problems early.

How often should I visit the dentist for checkups? It’s recommended to visit the dentist every six months for checkups and cleanings. Your dentist might suggest a different frequency depending on your needs.

Can I reverse gum disease? In its early stages of gum disease (gingivitis), it can sometimes be reversed with good oral hygiene and professional dental care. More advanced gum disease (periodontal disease) may require more intensive treatment to manage.


Maintaining healthy gums not only preserves a beautiful smile but also for improving overall health. Healthy gums can prevent the development of serious conditions such as heart disease and diabetes complications. Take proactive steps to ensure your gum health by brushing twice daily, flossing regularly, and attending routine dental checkups. 

Professional cleanings can address plaque buildup that regular brushing and flossing might miss. Don’t wait until problems arise—take action now to maintain your oral health and enhance your well-being.

Let Us Help You in Taking Care of Your Dental Health

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